google79f3d4a96bd13f7b.html Borneo's Nature Awakens The Passion of European Adventurers (1) - Nature and Culture

Borneo's Nature Awakens The Passion of European Adventurers (1)

Borneo's nature and civilization

Image Source:BeritaSatu,com

Indonesia is an archipelagic country with the island of Borneo in the middle, as the third largest island in the world (with an area of ​​743,330 km²) after Greenland and Papua.

Initially, the Europeans, especially the Dutch, did not pay much attention to the existence of the island of Borneo, because this island was relatively unheard of in world trade. The Dutch were more concentrated on other islands which proved to be financially profitable.

The Maluku Islands, which are located in the eastern part of Indonesia as a producer of abundant spices, cloves and, nutmeg from these islands have long been a world trade commodity. With the spice trade monopoly produced by this area, the Dutch financial treasury became fat.

The Java Island, from this island the Dutch, made a big profit with a monopoly on the trade of pepper, tea leaves, sugar, coffee, and rice which were the main products of this island. In addition to cash income from the Dutch trade monopoly, they also received income from the Javanese forest in the form of wood which was transported to Europe as a shipbuilding material. The Dutch rulers also collected tribute from the Javanese kings they conquered.

Dutch greed did not stop with the monopoly of trade, in the future, Dutch forced Cultuurstelsel, forced cultivation of coffee, sugar cane, and tobacco commodities in the land of Java, Java.

The Dutch government's interest in the island of Borneo began after the publication of a travel report on the land of Sarawak, Borneo by James Brook around 1840. Economic motives prompted the Dutch authorities to send troops to intimidate the kingdom in the coastal areas of the island of Borneo. A trade agreement in favor of the Dutch was concluded and the Sultans were forced to agree.

The arrival of government representatives and Dutch traders began to unravel the mysteries of the island of Borneo, which gradually attracted the interest of adventurists and researchers to explore the isolated lands of Kalimantan.

Researchers collect data on the natural potential of the forest and its land. The results of his research in the field are written in a report, in addition to forest products as well as minerals contained in the Earth of Borneo.

The search for minerals from the bowels of the earth was in line with the industrial revolution in Europe from 1760 to 1840 which required coal energy as a driving force for steam engines.

1888 The Dutch established the coal mining company Oaast Borneo Matchappij to carry out mining in the Batu Panggal area. (currently included in Sungai Kunjang Village, Samarinda, East Kalimantan)

In 1893 the Dutch Shell company conducted exploration and exploitation of petroleum in the Mahakam river delta, known as the Sanga-Sanga field (currently included in the Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Kalimantan).

In the following years, more Europeans came to Borneo with diverse interests.

Some European adventurists who came to Kalimantan are:


1. (1812) Alexander Hare in Banjarmasin

As a Resident Commissioner, who was appointed during the reign of Raffles who served as Governor-General. According to DJM Tate, in the book The European Conquest, Alexander is described as a resident who controls the Benteng area (currently including the area of ​​the Sabilal Muktadin Grand Mosque, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan).

Hare who exercises power like a king, what most remembered is his great interest in women. It is said that Hare built a Harem with 14 women in it consisting of natives, Chinese, and Indians.

When Dutch power entered the island of Borneo, Alexander's power ended. The expelled Hare traveled to several places in Batavia, Lombok, Africa, and finally settled in Cocos Islands.

2. (1842) James Brooke

An English adventurer who was granted power by the Sultan of Brunei. Brook controls his power which is located at the western end of the Sultanate of Brunei, namely the Sarawak region near the Kuching border (currently included in Malaysian sovereignty) with the title Raja Puteh in Kalimantan, Several books and films that highlight Brook's adventure stories include:

Adventure novel "Kalimantan" (CS Godshalk, 1998)

The White Rajah of Sarawak (Robert Payne, 1960)

In The Heart of Borneo” Journal Article 

Post a Comment for "Borneo's Nature Awakens The Passion of European Adventurers (1)"